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KARATE

Karate or karate-do is a martial art developed in the Ryukyu Islands from indigenous fighting methods and Chinese kenpo. It is primarily a striking art using punching, kicking, knee and elbow strikes and open-handed techniques such as knife-hands and ridge-hands.
Karate can be practiced as budo, as a sport, as a combat sport, or as self defense training. Traditional karate places emphasis on self development (budo).
Karate training is commonly divided into kihon (basics or fundamentals), kata (forms), and kumite (sparring).
Gichin Funakoshi interpreted the "kara" of Karatedo to mean "to purge [oneself] of selfish and evil thoughts. For only with a clear mind and conscience can (the practitioner) understand that [knowledge] which he receives." Funakoshi believed that one should be "inwardly humble and outwardly gentle." Only by behaving humbly can one be open to Karate's many lessons. This is done by listening and being receptive to criticism. He considered courtesy of prime importance. He said that "Karate is properly applied only in those rare situations in which one really must either down another or be downed by him." Funakoshi did not consider it unusual for a devotee to use Karate in a real physical confrontation no more than perhaps once in a lifetime. He stated that Karate practitioners must "never be easily drawn into a fight." It is understood that one blow from a real expert could mean death. It is clear that those who misuse what they have learned bring dishonor upon themselves. He promoted the character trait of personal conviction. In "time of grave public crisis, one must have the courage...to face a million and one opponents." He taught that indecisiveness is a weakness.
Karate began as a fighting system known as "ti" (or "te") among the pechin class of the Ryukyuans. During the Taira-Minamoto war, some samurai from the Minamoto clan arrived in Okinawa from Japan and became allies with the Ryukyuan nobles. The samurai may have taught their new allies the martial art of Daito-ryu aiki-jujutsu which the pechin could have combined with their own fighting system. After trade relationships were established with the Ming dinasty China by Chuzan King Satto in 1372, many forms of Chinese martial arts were introduced to Ryukyu Islands by the visitors from China, mainly Fujian Province. A group of 36 Chinese families moved to Okinawa around 1392 for the purpose of cultural exchange. The political centralization of Okinawa by King Shohashi in 1429 and the 'Policy of Banning Weapons,' enforced in Okinawa after the invasion of the Shimazu clan in 1609, are also factors that furthered the development of Okinawan unarmed combat techniques.
Gichin Funakoshi, founder of Shotokan karate, is generally credited with having introduced and popularized karate on the main islands of Japan. Actually many Okinawans were actively teaching, and are thus equally responsible for the development of karate.

КАРАТЕ

Карате (яп. каратэ-до: «путь пустой руки») — японское боевое искусство. Данное написание было придумано в 1929 году Фунакоси Гитином под влиянием идей дзэн-буддизма.
В Японию карате попало с острова Окинава в начале XX века. Окинава когда-то была центром независимого королевства Рюкю, имевшего тесные торговые связи с Китаем и Японией. В XVII веке королевство Рюкю было завоёвано самураями княжества Сацума, и стало его вассалом. В настоящее время в западной литературе из книги в книгу кочуют легенды о том, что, якобы, жители Окинавы вели постоянную партизанскую борьбу против японских захватчиков, и ради этой борьбы создали искусство карате, хотя исторические документы фиксируют полную покорность окинавцев оккупантам; тот факт, что при трёхсоттысячном населении острова там размещалось всего полтора десятка самураев японского гарнизона, говорит сам за себя. Боевые искусства на острове практиковались в основном среди потомков переселенцев из Китая, а от них постепенно попадали и к другим жителям. В карате не используется холодное оружие. Как полагается причиной этого как раз и послужило завоевание острова и запрещение производства, ношения и тем более применение холодного оружия. Тем не менее в карате широко распространено использование других подручных средств как то: шест, нунчаку т.п.

Karate, Карате

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